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Russia to stake arctic claim
Description: Mini-Submarine Crew To Raise Flag At North Pole.
Date: 25 July 2007
Author: Craig Offman
Source: National Post

Two weeks after Prime Minister Stephen Harper announced Canada's plans to assert itself more vigorously in the Arctic, a Russian expedition set sail yesterday for the North Pole, where it plans to send a mini-submarine crew to plant a flag on the seabed and symbolically claim the Arctic for the Kremlin.

The mission is part of a race to assert rights over the Lomonosov Ridge, a barren but energy-rich wasteland that stretches across 11 time zones. Scientists estimate the glassy icescape is rich with 10 billion tonnes of gas and oil deposits.

The Russians have long claimed the ridge, which extends into northern Canada, as an extension of their continent.

"The Arctic is Russian," Artur Chilingarov, the expedition leader and deputy leader of the country's parliament, told Russian television.

"We are going to be the first to put a flag there, a Russian flag at the bottom of the Arctic Ocean, at the very point of the North Pole."

Legal and defence experts see the move as part of a Russian push to assert itself globally and equally, a canny public relations move.

"They're really playing to the press," said University of British Columbia international law professor Michael Byers. "Canada and Russia are similar in that they are using a tried and tested technique of northern nationalism."

The three members of the Russian submarine team say they plan to carry out scientific research.

If all goes according to plan, the nuclear-powered icebreaker Rossiya will smash through the weakened ice, leading the way for the main expedition ship, which will launch the submarine. A Mir submersible vehicle will delve 4,000 metres to the bottom of the ocean beneath the pole.

One of the biggest worries is resurfacing at the same hole in the ice the scientists dove into -- the crew risks becoming trapped if the mini-submarine is not powerful enough to break through the ice. The descent is to begin on Sunday. As it stands, no country lays exclusive claim to the region. Rather, Arctic nations Canada, the United States, Russia, Denmark and Norway all have maritime jurisdictions that extend 200 nautical miles off their coastlines. If one of the states want to expand its zone, it will need more than a flag to prove it.

It needs hard, expensive science. It must validate that the structure of its shelf is consistent with its own geological structure of its own terrain. "We're not talking about a contest of sovereignty and territory. We're talking about a scientific process involving complex seismology and sonar measurements," Prof. Byers said.

Since 2001,Russia has claimed a larger slice extending as far as the North Pole because Moscow says the Arctic seabed and Siberia are linked via the same continental shelf. In a proposal to a United Nations commission, Russia claimed extra-territorial waters off its northern coast. But the world body kicked the proposal back the Russians, asking for more scientific information.

Now flush with revenues from oil, gas and metals, Russia has the muscle and cash to fund the expedition and beef up their claims.

 

Defence analyst Brian MacDonald said that the move should be seen in a global context: Russian President Vladimir Putin's more pugnacious approach to foreign policy. "It's a pattern where Russia is coming back to the world now that it has all this oil money. They're challenging us."

Mr. MacDonald, a senior defence analyst at the Conference of Defence Associations, added that the move underscores Canada's lack of presence in the region. "It demonstrates that Russians have capacity to move in the Arctic, and we don't. Unless we do something soon, such as deploy ships in the region, we are going to weaken our own claims to sovereignty."

On a visit to CFB Esquimalt earlier this month, the Prime Minister announced Canada's intention to build up to eight armed ships that would be able to cut through one metre of ice. The vessels will cost about $3.1-billion, with about $4.3-billion for operations and maintenance during their 25-year lifespan. The Canadian Foreign ministry did not comment on the expedition, nor did the Russian Embassy in Ottawa.

NATIONALPOST.COM

For more on Russia's bid to stake its claim in the Arctic, visit nationalpost.com.

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RUSSIAN SUB MISHAPS - Feb. 6, 2007: A Cold War-era Russian submarine sank off the coast of Denmark as it was being towed to Thailand to be exhibited in a museum. The Whisky class S-194 boat, which was empty, started to take on water for unknown reasons, forcing its tug to cut it loose for safety reasons. - Aug. 4, 2005: A small Russian submarine became trapped by undersea fishing nets or cables off the Kamchatka Peninsula. An unmanned British rescue vehicle was able to cut the entangling debris, releasing the submarine. All seven crew members, who had been trapped for three days, were alive. - Aug. 30, 2003: A decommissioned K-159 submarine sank in the Barents Sea as it was being towed to an Arctic scrap-yard where its reactors were to be removed. Nine of the 10 sailors aboard died. Following the incident, Russia's defence minister, Sergei Ivanov said: "There were definitely elements of this frivolous Russian reliance on chance, that everything will work out."

Source: National Post

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